Maybe there's some deep, "super-programmer" tricks for this, but I think the short answer is no. There's just too many ways to get a link onto a site.
If you don't have access to a site's logs (i,.e. you don't own it) you don't have the most useful information you'd need.
If you are talking about a particular type of site (e.g. WP blog) then you would narrow down your choices but even then, it'd be a big project.
Alright guys, there's really no need to start offending eachothers. This is a marketing forum, so you need to start learning how to become more professional.
Regarding OP's question, if it was that easy to get people's IPs, then that'd cause lotsa problems of all sorts. IP addresses are burried deep down in the logs or tracking software and they are meant to be kept that way. However, some website owners still do stupid mistakes, giving outsiders access to these information. Oh yeah, care to explain why would you want such information? I can't think of any reason really
What griffon said is absolutely correct. I too was looking for that too but you wont get access to those data. so its better you keep building backlinks. The IP with which the backlink is created matters a little but dont affect your ranking hugely.